01.2. Phase II
ii. Statistics – (Lectures  8 hours + Tutorials  4 hours)
Objective 
Content 
TL Activity 
Time Hrs. 
Summarize and present a data set using appropriate summary statistics & graphical methods 
Data types Scales of measurement Measures of central tendency: Average Mean, Median, Mode Measures of dispersion: Range, Quartiles, Standard Deviation Significant figures, Rounding, Tables Graphs: Histograms, Stem & Leaf Plots, Box plots, Bar & Pie Charts: (simple, compound and component), Pictogram,Scatter diagram, Line Graph 
Lecture 
2 
Describe the sampling methods and comment on the appropriateness of the sampling method used for a particular study 
Sampling techniques: simple, random, systematic, stratified, multistage, cluster Table of random numbers, Computer generated random numbers 
Lecture 
1 
Explain confidence intervals 
Standard error of mean, Standard error of percentage/ proportion, SE of difference between two means, SE of difference between two proportions 
Lecture 
2 
Perform the following significance test – Normal test (for means and percentages), X2 test 
Null hypothesis Normal test/Z test, t test, Chi square test Type I error and Type II error 
Lecture 
1 
Interpret correlation coefficient and linear regression 
Correlation coefficient, Simple Linear Regression, Regression Coefficient interpretation. 
Lecture 
1 
Explain the need for standardization of mortality and morbidity statistics. 
Standardized Mortality rate/ratio  Direct standardization Indirect standardization 
Lecture 
1 
RECOMMENDED READING MATERIAL

Bland M 2000, An Introduction to Medical Statistics, Oxford University Press, pp 68 – 81, 122 – 132, 137 – 140, 156 – 164, 233 – 239 and 275 – 281.

Winifred M Castle, 1977, Statistics in Small Doses, Churchill Livingston.

Park, K 2007, ‘Elementary Statistical Methods : Health Information and Basic Medical Statistics’, in Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine pp. 696 706, Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Jabalpur, India

Park, K 2007, ‘Adjusted or Standardised rates: Principles of Epidemiology and Epidemiologic Methods’, in Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine pp. 54 56, Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers, Jabalpur, India